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Pink (Ocean) Shrimp Enhanced Status Report

Table of Contents

4. Monitoring and Essential Fishery Information

4.1 Description of Relevant Essential Fishery Information

Biological Information
The biology of Pink Shrimp is well understood. Currently, no biological indicators are routinely monitored in the Pink Shrimp fishery. Due to the fact that population fluctuations are thought to be largely driven by environmental variation, environmental indicators may be more useful in predicting stock status than biological ones.

Fishery-dependent Indicators
Currently, no indicators are routinely monitored in the Pink Shrimp fishery. However, there are a number of informative indicators that could be monitored. The standardized CPUE is a proxy for Pink Shrimp abundance. The sex ratio of the catch would provide a way to track the age at which Pink Shrimp shift from males to females, which occurs in response to population densities. The count-per-lb is a proxy for the size distribution of the stock and is an indicator that the catch is targeting mature individuals. The spatial extent of fishing activities provides an indicator of serial depletion due to overfishing.

Environmental Indicators
Environmental variables related to the spring transition in coastal currents, such as April sea level height, during the pelagic larval phase have been found to be negatively correlated with recruitment of age-one individuals in Oregon (Hannah 1993, 2010). In particular, the sea level height has been found to be a major indicator of recruitment strength in Oregon. Currently, no environmental indicators are tracked for use in California’s management.

4.2 Past and Ongoing Monitoring of the Fishery

4.2.1 Fishery-dependent Data Collection

Monitoring information currently collected by the Department includes logbooks and market receipts. Trawl logbooks are a mandated system for fishermen to record start and end haul locations, time, depth, and duration of trawl tows, total catch by species market category, gear used, and information about the vessel and crew. Fishery managers and enforcement officers use state-issued sales receipts, referred to as fish tickets, to monitor fishery landings. Fish ticket data are transferred to the Pacific Coast Fisheries Information Network regional database system by state fishery agencies in Washington, Oregon, and California. Data collected by fish tickets include:
• weight of the finfish or shellfish landed by market category (general groupings of fish that are not species-specific)
• price paid to the fisherman by market category
• date the fish was landed
• type of gear used to harvest the fish
• port of landing
• commercial fishing block where the fish were harvested

Monitoring of Bycatch Rates
Since 2004 the fishery has been subject to observation under the federal WCGOP. Observers monitor effort and landings, including the species makeup of both retained and discarded species, allowing for close monitoring of bycatch levels to ensure that they remain within acceptable levels, especially with regard to sensitive species such as rebuilding rockfish populations.

In 2007 the Oregon and northern California fleets were split into two separate sampling units because they had different regulatory requirements, and have been treated as separate sampling units ever since. Licensed vessels in each sampling unit are selected for observation via a stratified random sampling design. Vessels are observed from 01 April to 31 October.

Observers record the start time, end time, starting location, ending location, and depth of tows, as well as the gear type and fish ticket number corresponding with each trip. For each tow, observers record total catch weight, weight of discards by category, size composition of discards, reason for discards, species composition of discards, and the weight of the retained catch. They also note the catch of prohibited or protected species. Biological data is also collected, including the length frequency distribution. Observer coverage of the California fleet averages 14%.
California’s data collection protocol previously also included dockside market sampling for biological data and count per pound; however, the work was redirected in the early 2000s to other higher priority needs.

4.2.2 Fishery-independent Data Collection

At-sea surveys were conducted by the Department between 1959 and 1969 to obtain abundance estimates for the various commercial beds and set regional quotas. These surveys were discontinued due to costs (Hannah 1999).

Version: The Pink Shrimp Enhanced Status Report was updated in print and online in 2019.

Download: Pink Shrimp Enhanced Status Report (2019) (pdf)

Contact Us: To contact CDFW regarding the Pink Shrimp fishery, please email invert@wildlife.ca.gov or call (831) 649-2870.

Citation: California Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2019. Pink (Ocean) Shrimp, Pandalus jordani, Enhanced Status Report.

Contributor(s): Julia Coates (2019)

Pink (Ocean) Shrimp Enhanced Status Report (2019)

Table of Contents
  1. The Species
    1. Natural History
      1. Species Description
      2. Range, Distribution, and Movement
      3. Reproduction, Fecundity, and Spawning Season
      4. Natural Mortality
      5. Individual Growth
      6. Size and Age at Maturity
    2. Population Status and Dynamics
      1. Abundance Estimates
      2. Range, Distribution, and Movement
      3. Age Structure of the Population
    3. Habitat
    4. Ecosystem Role
      1. Associated Species
      2. Predator-prey Interactions
    5. Effects of Changing Oceanic Conditions
  2. The Fishery
    1. Location of the Fishery
    2. Fishing Effort
      1. Number of Vessels and Participants Over Time
      2. Type, Amount, and Selectivity of Gear
    3. Landings in the Recreational and Commercial Sectors
      1. Recreational
      2. Commercial
    4. Social and Economic Factors Related to the Fishery
  3. Management
    1. Past and Current Management
      1. Overview and Rationale for the Current Management Framework
        1. Criteria to Identify When Fisheries Are Overfished or Subject to Overfishing, and Measures to Rebuild
        2. Past and Current Stakeholder Involvement
      2. Target Species
        1. Limitations on Fishing for Target Species
          1. Catch
          2. Effort
          3. Gear
          4. Time
          5. Sex
          6. Size
          7. Area
          8. Marine Protected Areas
        2. Description of and Rationale for Any Restricted Access Approach
      3. Bycatch
        1. Amount and Type of Bycatch (Including Discards)
        2. Assessment of Sustainability and Measures to Reduce Unacceptable Levels of Bycatch
          Discard Mortality
          Impact on Fisheries that Target Bycatch Species
          Bycatch of Overfished, Threatened, or Endangered Species
          Measures to Reduce Bycatch
      4. Habitat
        1. Description of Threats
        2. Measures to Minimize Any Adverse Effects on Habitat Caused by Fishing
    2. Requirements for Person or Vessel Permits and Reasonable Fees
  4. Monitoring and Essential Fishery Information
    1. Description of Relevant Essential Fishery Information
      Biological Information
      Fishery-dependent Indicators
      Environmental Indicators
    2. Past and Ongoing Monitoring of the Fishery
      1. Fishery-dependent Data Collection
        Monitoring of Bycatch Rates
      2. Fishery-independent Data Collection
  5. Future Management Needs and Directions
    1. Identification of Information Gaps
    2. Research and Monitoring
      1. Potential Strategies to Fill Information Gaps
      2. Opportunities for Collaborative Fisheries Research
    3. Opportunities for Future
      Management of the Target Stock
      Restricted Access
      Stakeholder Communication
    4. Climate Readiness
List of Acronyms
ABC: Allowable Biological Catch
BRD: Bycatch Reduction Device
CCR: California Code of Regulations
CDFG: California Department of Fish and Game
CDFW: California Department of Fish and Wildlife
CPUE: Catch Per Unit Effort
EFH: Essential Fish Habitat
EIS: Environmental Impact Statement
ESA: Endangered Species Act
ESR: Enhanced Status Report
FCG: Fish and Game Code
FMP: Fishery Management Plan
HCR: Harvest Control Rule
IBC: Indicators of Biological Concern
LED: Light Emitting Diode
MLMA: Marine Life Management Act
MPA: Marine Protected Area
MSC: Marine Stewardship Council
NMFS: National Marine Fisheries Service
ODFW: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife
PFMC: Pacific Fishery Management Council
PSTG: Pink Shrimp Trawl Grounds
RCA: Rockfish Conservation Area
WCGOP: West Coast Groundfish Observer Program
List of Figures

Figure 1-1. Range of Pink Shrimp.

Figure 1-2. Three size (age) classes of Pink Shrimp.

Figure 1-3. Annual age composition (percent) of Pink Shrimp landed in Oregon, 1975-2017.

Figure 1-4. Pink Shrimp habitat.

Figure 2-1. Historical Pink Shrimp trawl locations in a) northern California and b) southern California.

Figure 2-2. Participation (active vessels) and landings (million lb) in the Pink Shrimp fishery, 1970-2017.

Figure 2-3. Diagrams of a) single-rigged vessel pulling one otter trawl, and b) double-rigged vessel pulling two otter trawls used on Pink Shrimp vessels.

Figure 2-4. Diagram of a rigid-grate BRD used in the Pink Shrimp fishery.

Figure 2-5. Pink Shrimp landings (million lb) and value (million dollars), 1970-2017.

Figure 2-6. Catch per trip of Pink Shrimp, 1970-2017.

Figure 2-7. Pink Shrimp on a trawl vessel deck.

Figure 2-8. Pink Shrimp percentage of total landings by port in 2017.

Figure 2-9. Pink Shrimp processing.

Figure 5-1. Eulachon in trawls a) without and b) with LED lights in Pink Shrimp landings.

List of Tables

Table 2-1. Poundage, ex-vessel value, and price per pound for Pink Shrimp, from 2000 to 2014 (most recent year of data).

Table 3-1. Observed catch of groundfish by Pink Shrimp trawlers in California, 2014.

Table 3-2. Observed catch of non-groundfish by Pink Shrimp trawlers in California, 2014.

Table 3-3. Pink Shrimp bycatch of the California fleet vs. ABC of rebuilding or recently rebuilt species.

Table 3-4. List of fees for Pink Shrimp trawl vessel permits.

Table 5-1. Informational needs for Pink Shrimp and their priority for management.

Literature Cited

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Butler TH. 1964. Growth, reproduction, and distribution of pandalid shrimps in British Columbia. Journal of the Fisheries Board of Canada 21(6): 1403-1452.

California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG). 2007. Information Concerning the Pink Shrimp Trawl Fishery off Northern California. Report to the Fish and Game Commission. 24 December 2007. Accessed 01 May 2018. https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=36331.

California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG). 2008. Status of the fishery report – an update through 2006. Report to the Fish and Game Commission as directed by the Marine Life Management Act. June 2008. Accessed 01 May 2018.  https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=34405&inline=true.

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Dahlstrom WA. 1973. The status of the ocean shrimp resource and its management. California Department of Fish and Game Marine Resources Technical Report. No. 14. 19 p.

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Hannah RW. 1993. Influence of environmental variation and spawning stock levels on recruitment of ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50(3): 612–622.

Hannah RW. 1999. A new method for indexing spawning stock and recruitment in ocean shrimp, Pandalus jordani, and preliminary evidence for a stock-recruitment relationship. Fishery Bulletin 97(3): 482-494.

Hannah RW. 2010. Use of a pre-recruit abundance index to improve forecasts of ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) recruitment from environmental models. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports. No 51. 219 p.

Hannah RW, Jones SA. 1991. Fishery induced changes in the population structure of Pink Shrimp (Pandalus jordani). Fishery Bulletin89: 41–51.

Hannah RW, Jones SA. 2007. Effectiveness of bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) in the ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) trawl fishery. Fisheries Research 85(1-2):217–225.

Hannah RW, Jones SA, Miller W, Knight JS. 2010. Effects of trawling for ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) on macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity at four sites near Nehalem Bank, Oregon. Fishery Bulletin 108:30-38.

Hannah RW, Jones SA, Lomeli MJM, Wakefield WW. 2011. Trawl net modifications to reduce the bycatch of Eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus) in the ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) fishery. Fisheries Research 110(2):277-282.

Hannah RW. 2011. Variation in the distribution of ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) recruits: links with coastal upwelling and climate change. Fisheries Oceanography 20(4):305-313.

Hannah RW, Lomeli MJ, Jones SA. 2015. Tests of artificial light for bycatch reduction in an ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) trawl: strong but opposite effects at the footrope and near the bycatch reduction device. Fisheries Research 170:60-67.

Jones SA, Hannah RW, Golden JT. 1996. A Survey of Trawl Gear Employed in the Fishery for Ocean Shrimp. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Information Reports Number 96-6. Accessed 01 May 2018. https://nrimp.dfw.state.or.us/CRL/Reports/Info/96-6.pdf

Last K, Hendrick V, Sotheran I, Foster-Smith B, Foster-Smith D, Hutchison Z. 2012. Assessing the Impacts of Shrimp Fishing on Sabellaria spinulosaReef and Associated Biodiversity in the Wash and North Norfolk SAC, Inner Dowsing Race Bank North Ridge SAC and Surrounding Areas. Report for Natural England. May 2012. 48 p.

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). 2007. The Oregon pink (ocean) shrimp trawl fishery. Accessed 01 May 2018. http://www.msc.org/assets/docs/Oregon_pink_shrimp/Final_Report_Oct_2007.pdf.  

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2005. Essential Fish Habitat Designation and Minimization of Adverse Impacts Final Environmental Impact Statement. Accessed 01 May 2018. https://www.westcoast.fisheries.noaa.gov/publications/nepa/groundfish/final_groundfish_efh_eis.html

National Research Council (NRC). 2002. Effects of trawling and dredging on seafloor habitat. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 136 p.

North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC). 2010. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) 5-year Review for 2010. https://www.npfmc.org/wp-content/PDFdocuments/conservation_issues/EFH/EFH5yr_rev1209.pdf.

Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC). 2010. Data report and summary analyses of the California and Oregon Pink Shrimp trawl fishery. West Coast Groundfish Observer Program. National Marine Fisheries Service. 30 p.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2013. Annual Pink Shrimp review. Accessed 01 May 2018. http://www.dfw.state.or.us/MRP/publications/docs/shrimp_newsletter2013.pdf.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2014a. Annual Pink Shrimp review. Accessed 01 May 2018.  http://www.dfw.state.or.us/mrp/publications/docs/shrimp_newsletter2014.pdf.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2014b. A comparison of 2007 and 2013 macroinvertebrate surveys of mud habitats at Nehalem Bank, Oregon: changes in areas with continued trawling and those closed to trawling in 2006. Information Reports Number 2014 – 03. Accessed 01 May 2018. https://www.dfw.state.or.us/mrp/shellfish/commercial/shrimp/docs/ODFW-INFO-2014-03-Hannah,%20Jones,%20Kupillas,%20Miller-A%20comparison%20of%202007%20and%202013%20macroinvertebrate%20surveys%20of%20Nehalem%20Banks.pdf.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2014c. The Population Dynamics of Oregon Ocean Shrimp (Pandalus jordani)and Recommendations for Management Using Target and Limit Reference Points or Suitable Proxies. Information Reports Number 2014-08. Accessed 01 May 2018.  https://www.dfw.state.or.us/mrp/shellfish/commercial/shrimp/docs/ODFW-INFO-2014-08-%20Hannah,%20Jones-%20Shrimp%20Target%20and%20Limit%20Management.pdf.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2014d. Mid-season Pink Shrimp update. Accessed 01 May 2018.  http://www.dfw.state.or.us/MRP/publications/docs/shrimp_newsletter2014_midseason.pdf.

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