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Pink (Ocean) Shrimp Enhanced Status Report

Table of Contents

1. The Species

1.1 Natural History

1.1.1 Species Description

Pink Shrimp (Pandalus jordani), also called Ocean Shrimp, is a commercially important species in California. Pink Shrimp are crustaceans in the genus Pandalus and are closely related to the Northern Rough Pink Shrimp (Pandalus eous). Pink Shrimp have a hard outer shell and jointed legs, and can grow up to 6 inches (in) long. They are uniform pink in coloration, with no stripes or spots, though their dark viscera can be seen through their translucent bodies. Pink Shrimp have large, bulbous eyes and breathe through their gills. The rostrum (a horn-like projection between the eyes) is 1.5 to 2 times longer than the carapace (hard plate covering the head and thorax). Pink Shrimp are almost identical in size and coloration to the Northern Rough Pink Shrimp, but lack the spine Rough Pink Shrimp have on their curved abdominal segment.

1.1.2 Range, Distribution, and Movement

Pink Shrimp range from southeast Alaska to Baja California, California, but are only abundant enough to support a commercial fishery from Point Arguello to British Columbia (Hannah and Jones 2007) (Figure 1-1). It is thought that a single genetic stock exists throughout their entire range (OST 2014). Pink Shrimp are most abundant off the coast of Oregon, and since 2007, the majority of landings have been concentrated in the northernmost counties of California. Pink Shrimp are found at depths of 150 to 1,200 feet (ft), but tend to be caught between 300 and 600 ft in California (mean reported depth in logbooks is 444 ft ± 124; mean ± standard deviation). They generally inhabit deep waters, aggregating near the bottom during the day in well-defined areas of muddy habitat called beds and ascending into the water column at night to feed. Historically, most fishing occurred in federal waters, and since 2008 trawling for shrimp in state waters has been prohibited.

Pink Shrimp may be subject to some level of on-shore/offshore transport due to ocean currents. However, there is no evidence that they exhibit large, coast-wide migratory behavior. Larval transport between beds may occur since young-of-the-year shrimp live in the plankton for up to eight months before settling to the bottom.

Figure 1-1. Range of Pink Shrimp.

1.1.3 Reproduction, Fecundity, and Spawning Season

Pink Shrimp are short-lived, fast-growing, highly-fecund species. They are protandric hermaphrodites, meaning they spend the first year and a half as males, and then transition to females. The age at transition can vary in response to environmental or population cues. Mating takes place during September and October. Fecundity (the number of eggs females produce) varies between years and areas (Hannah et al.  2011), and small females in their second year have been found to produce as few as 900 eggs, while larger shrimp in their third or fourth year of life may bear up to 3,900 eggs. After fertilization by packets of sperm, the female carries the eggs attached to the posterior swimming appendages until the eggs hatch during late March and early April. The fishery is closed from 01 November to 01 April to prevent egg-bearing females from being caught. There is a 2 to 3 month pelagic larval phase. Juveniles occupy successively deeper depths as they grow, and recruit to the fishery in the late summer, at about 5 to 6 months of age.

1.1.4 Natural Mortality

Pink Shrimp live approximately 5 years (yr), but catches are usually dominated by the age-one year class (Parsons et al.2013). Natural mortality is high, with the over-winter (between fishing seasons) survival rates estimated to be between 43 and 76% for shrimp aged one to three. Natural mortality may increase after age three (Dahlstrom 1973). In California, few shrimp survive beyond their fourth year (Dahlstrom 1973). Natural mortality rates may also change in response to the abundance of predator stocks, such as Pacific Hake.

1.1.5 Individual Growth

Pink Shrimp experience a pelagic larval period of 2 to 3 months. The developing juvenile shrimp occupy successively deeper depths as they grow, and may appear in commercial catches, which target shrimp inhabiting muddy bottoms, by late summer. Shrimp grow in steps by molting or shedding their carapace. Growth rates vary according to region, sex, age, and year class (Dahlstrom 1973). Pink Shrimp generally grow faster in northern California than they do in Oregon, and age-one shrimp in California are often large enough to meet the minimum shrimp per pound (lb) restriction. There is a clear pattern of seasonal growth despite the variations mentioned, with very rapid growth during spring and summer and slower growth during the winter (Frimodig et al. 2009). In Oregon, growth rates were found to increase after 1979, suggesting a density-dependent response to fishing.

One-year old shrimp range from 0.5 to 0.7 in (13 to17 millimeters (mm)) in mean carapace length, 2 yr old shrimp range from 0.7 to 1.0 in (18 to 25 mm), and 3 yr old shrimp range from 1.0 to 1.1 in (25 to 29 mm) (CDFG 2008) (Figure 1-2). Years with very high abundances can cause competition amongst a cohort for scarce resources, resulting in reduced growth rates.

Figure 1-2. Three size (age) classes of Pink Shrimp (Photo Credit: Robert Hannah, ODFW).

1.1.6 Size and Age at Maturity

As noted, Pink Shrimp are protandric hermaphrodites, meaning that all shrimp are born male and will reproduce first as males and shift to being female at age 1.5, but it is possible to have age groups that are composed of both males and females (Butler 1964). Some shrimp shift their sex earlier in response to changes in the age distribution of the population (Charnov et al. 1978). When population sizes are low, some older shrimp remain male. Conversely, when year-class strength is high, as much as 60% of 1 yr old shrimp will shift to be female, and thus never breed as males. Young-of-the-year shrimp (hatched in the spring of a given year) settle to the bottom by the late summer or early fall. Thus, they may become vulnerable to the fishing gear at the end of the fishing season, prior to achieving sexual maturity. Fecundity increases with size in Pink Shrimp, and thus the age structure of the stock may be a useful indicator of breeding stock health, as well as recruitment in subsequent years.

1.2 Population Status and Dynamics

1.2.1 Abundance Estimates

At-sea surveys were conducted by the Department between 1959 and 1969 to obtain abundance estimates for the various commercial beds and set regional quotas. These surveys were costly, so a mathematical population model was developed to estimate the population size from 1969 until 1975, but its use was discontinued because Pink Shrimp violate a number of the assumptions in the models due to variable recruitment, growth, and mortality.

In 1981, a comprehensive coast-wide stock assessment was conducted, in which a Schaeffer surplus production model was fit to catch and effort data from 1959 to1980 (Abrahamson et al. 1981). However, this model was inappropriate for stocks in which biomass changes are driven by environmental fluctuations rather than the effects of fishing (Geibel and Heimann 1976).

Pink Shrimp abundance off California varies substantially from year to year, which is largely attributed to environmental factors causing natural fluctuations in recruitment. This is a source of major uncertainty and prevents reliable long-term forecasting. Equilibrium-based models such as catch-at-age and yield-per-recruit have also been unsuccessful at determining stock status and meaningful reference points for Pink Shrimp. Environmental models have been more successful at accounting for the variation observed in the catch, but have found no significant effects of fishing on future stock size (i.e., a stock-recruitment relationship) (Hannah 1993). The importance of environmental factors on Pink Shrimp recruitment and distribution suggests fishing pressure may have relatively less influence on stock status. However, overfishing may be possible if intensive fishing were to be directed at a failed year class.

Catches, which are assumed to reflect the available biomass, have varied widely from year to year, and Catch Per Unit Effort (CPUE) has been relatively high since 2010. From 2011 to 2013, landings on the west coast were also high, but have declined since 2015.

1.2.2 Age Structure of the Population

The age structure of the California portion of the stock was last assessed in the 1990s. At that time, the age structure of the Pink Shrimp off Oregon was found to have been altered by intensive fishing since the 1970s (Hannah and Jones 1991). The proportion of first-time breeders (age-one individuals) had increased from ~30% to ~70% of the catch. This may have impacted the spawning potential of the stock.

Because the Pink Shrimp stock crosses the California-Oregon border, and a sizeable portion of the catch landed in Oregon is caught in California waters, the age structure of the Oregon catches (Figure 1-3) is likely to be representative of stock conditions in California. In the late 2000s and early 2010s, age-two shrimp dominated the catch, and as a result, the age-three component of the 2012 stock was the highest observed since 1978 (ODFW 2013). It is hypothesized that the high population levels have allowed fishermen to avoid the smaller (and less valuable) age-one year class, delaying their capture by one year (ODFW 2014a). A large recruitment class in 2015 caused a very high proportion of the catch to be composed of age-one shrimp in 2016, but in 2017 a more usual age distribution was observed.

Figure 1-3. Annual age composition (percent) of Pink Shrimp landed in Oregon, 1975-2017 (Reproduced from ODWF 2018a).

1.3 Habitat

Pink Shrimp inhabit muddy bottoms at a depth range of 150 to 1,200 ft along the coast of North America (Dahlstrom 1973). They are most often found in well-defined beds of either sandy mud or what is termed “green mud” (Figure 1-4). They aggregate near the sea floor during the day but ascend into the water column to feed at night. For this reason, they are targeted during the day using benthic trawl gear that drags along the sediment. Beds with commercial densities have been mapped, and while the largest beds occur off the coast of Oregon, commercial beds can be found from southern California to British Columbia.

Figure 1-4. Pink Shrimp habitat (Photo Credit: CDFW).

1.4 Ecosystem Role

Pink Shrimp occupy a central position in the trophic structure of their ecosystem because they feed on zooplankton and are forage for a number of fish species. They are also highly responsive to changing environmental conditions. Due to this sensitivity and their short life histories, species in Pandalusgenus have been shown to be early indicators of regime shifts, such as from predominantly cool, productive oceanic conditions to warmer, low productivity conditions (Anderson and Piatt 1999).

1.4.1 Associated Species

Pink Shrimp have no known associated species. However, the closely related Aesop Shrimp (Pandalus montagui) lives in association with the reef-building polychaete worm known as the Ross Worm (Sabellaria spinulosa) (Last et al. 2012).

1.4.2 Predator-prey Interactions

Pink Shrimp ascend into the water column at night to feed on zooplankton, including copepods and krill (Pearcy 1970). Their stomach contents have also included diatoms, sponges, polychaetes, amphipods, and isopods.

Pink Shrimp are likely an important source of prey for a number of fish species, including those of commercial importance. These include Pacific Hake, Arrowtooth Flounder, Sablefish, Petrale Sole, Spiny Dogfish, and several species of rockfish and skates (CDFG 2008;NWFSC 2010).

1.5 Effects of Changing Oceanic Conditions

Pink Shrimp have a high tolerance for a range of salinities, but a fairly narrow optimal temperature range between 8 and 11 degrees Celsius (˚C). Fluctuations in temperature from year to year may impact the survival, metamorphosis and growth of larvae (Rothlisberg 1979). In addition, the bottom temperature may influence the fecundity of shrimp (Hannah 2011). Recruitment of young-of-the-year has been negatively correlated with El Niño Southern Oscillation cycles. Coastal upwelling, which can vary from year to year, may influence the location of shrimp beds (Hannah 2011). The timing of spring transition, marked by increased offshore winds, increased upwelling, and decreased sea level height, has been linked to strong recruitment. The mechanism for this correlation may be related to cool, nutrient-rich waters promoting recruit survival. However, it is thought that very strong upwelling, and associated very low sea levels, transport larvae offshore, reducing recruitment (Hannah 2011).

Version: The Pink Shrimp Enhanced Status Report was updated in print and online in 2019.

Download: Pink Shrimp Enhanced Status Report (2019) (pdf)

Contact Us: To contact CDFW regarding the Pink Shrimp fishery, please email invert@wildlife.ca.gov or call (831) 649-2870.

Citation: California Department of Fish and Wildlife. 2019. Pink (Ocean) Shrimp, Pandalus jordani, Enhanced Status Report.

Contributor(s): Julia Coates (2019)

Pink (Ocean) Shrimp Enhanced Status Report (2019)

Table of Contents
  1. The Species
    1. Natural History
      1. Species Description
      2. Range, Distribution, and Movement
      3. Reproduction, Fecundity, and Spawning Season
      4. Natural Mortality
      5. Individual Growth
      6. Size and Age at Maturity
    2. Population Status and Dynamics
      1. Abundance Estimates
      2. Range, Distribution, and Movement
      3. Age Structure of the Population
    3. Habitat
    4. Ecosystem Role
      1. Associated Species
      2. Predator-prey Interactions
    5. Effects of Changing Oceanic Conditions
  2. The Fishery
    1. Location of the Fishery
    2. Fishing Effort
      1. Number of Vessels and Participants Over Time
      2. Type, Amount, and Selectivity of Gear
    3. Landings in the Recreational and Commercial Sectors
      1. Recreational
      2. Commercial
    4. Social and Economic Factors Related to the Fishery
  3. Management
    1. Past and Current Management
      1. Overview and Rationale for the Current Management Framework
        1. Criteria to Identify When Fisheries Are Overfished or Subject to Overfishing, and Measures to Rebuild
        2. Past and Current Stakeholder Involvement
      2. Target Species
        1. Limitations on Fishing for Target Species
          1. Catch
          2. Effort
          3. Gear
          4. Time
          5. Sex
          6. Size
          7. Area
          8. Marine Protected Areas
        2. Description of and Rationale for Any Restricted Access Approach
      3. Bycatch
        1. Amount and Type of Bycatch (Including Discards)
        2. Assessment of Sustainability and Measures to Reduce Unacceptable Levels of Bycatch
          Discard Mortality
          Impact on Fisheries that Target Bycatch Species
          Bycatch of Overfished, Threatened, or Endangered Species
          Measures to Reduce Bycatch
      4. Habitat
        1. Description of Threats
        2. Measures to Minimize Any Adverse Effects on Habitat Caused by Fishing
    2. Requirements for Person or Vessel Permits and Reasonable Fees
  4. Monitoring and Essential Fishery Information
    1. Description of Relevant Essential Fishery Information
      Biological Information
      Fishery-dependent Indicators
      Environmental Indicators
    2. Past and Ongoing Monitoring of the Fishery
      1. Fishery-dependent Data Collection
        Monitoring of Bycatch Rates
      2. Fishery-independent Data Collection
  5. Future Management Needs and Directions
    1. Identification of Information Gaps
    2. Research and Monitoring
      1. Potential Strategies to Fill Information Gaps
      2. Opportunities for Collaborative Fisheries Research
    3. Opportunities for Future
      Management of the Target Stock
      Restricted Access
      Stakeholder Communication
    4. Climate Readiness
List of Acronyms
ABC: Allowable Biological Catch
BRD: Bycatch Reduction Device
CCR: California Code of Regulations
CDFG: California Department of Fish and Game
CDFW: California Department of Fish and Wildlife
CPUE: Catch Per Unit Effort
EFH: Essential Fish Habitat
EIS: Environmental Impact Statement
ESA: Endangered Species Act
ESR: Enhanced Status Report
FCG: Fish and Game Code
FMP: Fishery Management Plan
HCR: Harvest Control Rule
IBC: Indicators of Biological Concern
LED: Light Emitting Diode
MLMA: Marine Life Management Act
MPA: Marine Protected Area
MSC: Marine Stewardship Council
NMFS: National Marine Fisheries Service
ODFW: Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife
PFMC: Pacific Fishery Management Council
PSTG: Pink Shrimp Trawl Grounds
RCA: Rockfish Conservation Area
WCGOP: West Coast Groundfish Observer Program
List of Figures

Figure 1-1. Range of Pink Shrimp.

Figure 1-2. Three size (age) classes of Pink Shrimp.

Figure 1-3. Annual age composition (percent) of Pink Shrimp landed in Oregon, 1975-2017.

Figure 1-4. Pink Shrimp habitat.

Figure 2-1. Historical Pink Shrimp trawl locations in a) northern California and b) southern California.

Figure 2-2. Participation (active vessels) and landings (million lb) in the Pink Shrimp fishery, 1970-2017.

Figure 2-3. Diagrams of a) single-rigged vessel pulling one otter trawl, and b) double-rigged vessel pulling two otter trawls used on Pink Shrimp vessels.

Figure 2-4. Diagram of a rigid-grate BRD used in the Pink Shrimp fishery.

Figure 2-5. Pink Shrimp landings (million lb) and value (million dollars), 1970-2017.

Figure 2-6. Catch per trip of Pink Shrimp, 1970-2017.

Figure 2-7. Pink Shrimp on a trawl vessel deck.

Figure 2-8. Pink Shrimp percentage of total landings by port in 2017.

Figure 2-9. Pink Shrimp processing.

Figure 5-1. Eulachon in trawls a) without and b) with LED lights in Pink Shrimp landings.

List of Tables

Table 2-1. Poundage, ex-vessel value, and price per pound for Pink Shrimp, from 2000 to 2014 (most recent year of data).

Table 3-1. Observed catch of groundfish by Pink Shrimp trawlers in California, 2014.

Table 3-2. Observed catch of non-groundfish by Pink Shrimp trawlers in California, 2014.

Table 3-3. Pink Shrimp bycatch of the California fleet vs. ABC of rebuilding or recently rebuilt species.

Table 3-4. List of fees for Pink Shrimp trawl vessel permits.

Table 5-1. Informational needs for Pink Shrimp and their priority for management.

Literature Cited

Abramson N, Geibel, Golden J, Northup T, Silverthorne W, Lukas J, Heimann R. 1981. Fishery Management Plan for the Pink Shrimp Fishery off Washington, Oregon and California. Pacific Fishery Management Council (PFMC).

Anderson PJ, Piatt JF. 1999. Community reorganization in the Gulf of Alaska following ocean climate regime shift. Marine Ecology Progress Series 189: 117-123. 

Al-Humaidhi AW, Bellman MA, Jannot J, Majewski J. 2012. Observed and estimated total bycatch of green sturgeon and Pacific Eulachon in 2002-2010 U.S. west coast fisheries. West Coast Groundfish Observer Program. National Marine Fisheries Service. 27 p.

Butler TH. 1964. Growth, reproduction, and distribution of pandalid shrimps in British Columbia. Journal of the Fisheries Board of Canada 21(6): 1403-1452.

California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG). 2007. Information Concerning the Pink Shrimp Trawl Fishery off Northern California. Report to the Fish and Game Commission. 24 December 2007. Accessed 01 May 2018. https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=36331.

California Department of Fish and Game (CDFG). 2008. Status of the fishery report – an update through 2006. Report to the Fish and Game Commission as directed by the Marine Life Management Act. June 2008. Accessed 01 May 2018.  https://nrm.dfg.ca.gov/FileHandler.ashx?DocumentID=34405&inline=true.

Charnov EL, Gotshall DW, Robinson JG. 1978. Sex ratio: adaptive adjustments to population fluctuations in Pandalid shrimp. Science 200: 204-206.

Dahlstrom WA. 1973. The status of the ocean shrimp resource and its management. California Department of Fish and Game Marine Resources Technical Report. No. 14. 19 p.

Frimodig AJ, Horeczko MC, Prall MW, Mason TJ, Owens BC, Wertz SP. 2009. Review of the California Trawl Fishery for Pacific Ocean Shrimp, Pandalus jordani, from 1992 to 2007.Marine Fisheries Review 71(2): 1-14.

Geibel JJ, Heimann FG. 1976. Assessment of ocean shrimp management in California resulting from widely fluctuating recruitment. California Fish Game 62: 255–273.  

Hannah RW. 1993. Influence of environmental variation and spawning stock levels on recruitment of ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani). Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 50(3): 612–622.

Hannah RW. 1999. A new method for indexing spawning stock and recruitment in ocean shrimp, Pandalus jordani, and preliminary evidence for a stock-recruitment relationship. Fishery Bulletin 97(3): 482-494.

Hannah RW. 2010. Use of a pre-recruit abundance index to improve forecasts of ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) recruitment from environmental models. California Cooperative Oceanic Fisheries Investigations Reports. No 51. 219 p.

Hannah RW, Jones SA. 1991. Fishery induced changes in the population structure of Pink Shrimp (Pandalus jordani). Fishery Bulletin89: 41–51.

Hannah RW, Jones SA. 2007. Effectiveness of bycatch reduction devices (BRDs) in the ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) trawl fishery. Fisheries Research 85(1-2):217–225.

Hannah RW, Jones SA, Miller W, Knight JS. 2010. Effects of trawling for ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) on macroinvertebrate abundance and diversity at four sites near Nehalem Bank, Oregon. Fishery Bulletin 108:30-38.

Hannah RW, Jones SA, Lomeli MJM, Wakefield WW. 2011. Trawl net modifications to reduce the bycatch of Eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus) in the ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) fishery. Fisheries Research 110(2):277-282.

Hannah RW. 2011. Variation in the distribution of ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) recruits: links with coastal upwelling and climate change. Fisheries Oceanography 20(4):305-313.

Hannah RW, Lomeli MJ, Jones SA. 2015. Tests of artificial light for bycatch reduction in an ocean shrimp (Pandalus jordani) trawl: strong but opposite effects at the footrope and near the bycatch reduction device. Fisheries Research 170:60-67.

Jones SA, Hannah RW, Golden JT. 1996. A Survey of Trawl Gear Employed in the Fishery for Ocean Shrimp. Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife. Information Reports Number 96-6. Accessed 01 May 2018. https://nrimp.dfw.state.or.us/CRL/Reports/Info/96-6.pdf

Last K, Hendrick V, Sotheran I, Foster-Smith B, Foster-Smith D, Hutchison Z. 2012. Assessing the Impacts of Shrimp Fishing on Sabellaria spinulosaReef and Associated Biodiversity in the Wash and North Norfolk SAC, Inner Dowsing Race Bank North Ridge SAC and Surrounding Areas. Report for Natural England. May 2012. 48 p.

Marine Stewardship Council (MSC). 2007. The Oregon pink (ocean) shrimp trawl fishery. Accessed 01 May 2018. http://www.msc.org/assets/docs/Oregon_pink_shrimp/Final_Report_Oct_2007.pdf.  

National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). 2005. Essential Fish Habitat Designation and Minimization of Adverse Impacts Final Environmental Impact Statement. Accessed 01 May 2018. https://www.westcoast.fisheries.noaa.gov/publications/nepa/groundfish/final_groundfish_efh_eis.html

National Research Council (NRC). 2002. Effects of trawling and dredging on seafloor habitat. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C. 136 p.

North Pacific Fishery Management Council (NPFMC). 2010. Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) 5-year Review for 2010. https://www.npfmc.org/wp-content/PDFdocuments/conservation_issues/EFH/EFH5yr_rev1209.pdf.

Northwest Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC). 2010. Data report and summary analyses of the California and Oregon Pink Shrimp trawl fishery. West Coast Groundfish Observer Program. National Marine Fisheries Service. 30 p.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2013. Annual Pink Shrimp review. Accessed 01 May 2018. http://www.dfw.state.or.us/MRP/publications/docs/shrimp_newsletter2013.pdf.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2014a. Annual Pink Shrimp review. Accessed 01 May 2018.  http://www.dfw.state.or.us/mrp/publications/docs/shrimp_newsletter2014.pdf.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2014b. A comparison of 2007 and 2013 macroinvertebrate surveys of mud habitats at Nehalem Bank, Oregon: changes in areas with continued trawling and those closed to trawling in 2006. Information Reports Number 2014 – 03. Accessed 01 May 2018. https://www.dfw.state.or.us/mrp/shellfish/commercial/shrimp/docs/ODFW-INFO-2014-03-Hannah,%20Jones,%20Kupillas,%20Miller-A%20comparison%20of%202007%20and%202013%20macroinvertebrate%20surveys%20of%20Nehalem%20Banks.pdf.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2014c. The Population Dynamics of Oregon Ocean Shrimp (Pandalus jordani)and Recommendations for Management Using Target and Limit Reference Points or Suitable Proxies. Information Reports Number 2014-08. Accessed 01 May 2018.  https://www.dfw.state.or.us/mrp/shellfish/commercial/shrimp/docs/ODFW-INFO-2014-08-%20Hannah,%20Jones-%20Shrimp%20Target%20and%20Limit%20Management.pdf.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2014d. Mid-season Pink Shrimp update. Accessed 01 May 2018.  http://www.dfw.state.or.us/MRP/publications/docs/shrimp_newsletter2014_midseason.pdf.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2016. Annual Pink Shrimp review. Accessed 28 April 2018.  https://www.dfw.state.or.us/mrp/shellfish/commercial/shrimp/docs/27th_APSR_2016.pdf.

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2018a. Annual Pink Shrimp review. Accessed 28 April 2018.  https://www.dfw.state.or.us/mrp/shellfish/commercial/shrimp/docs/29th_APSR_2018.pdf

Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW). 2018b. Fishery Management Plan for Oregon’s Trawl Fishery for Ocean Shrimp (Pandalus jordani). Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife Marine Resources Division. Accessed 01 May 2018.  https://www.dfw.state.or.us/mrp/shellfish/commercial/shrimp/docs/Oregon%20Pink%20Shrimp%20Fishery%20Management%20Plan%20March2018.pdf.

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Pearcy WG. 1970. Vertical migration of the ocean shrimp, Pandalus jordani: a feeding and dispersal mechanism. California Fish and Game 56:125-129.

Roberts S. 2005. Wild-caught coldwater shrimp. Seafood Watch Seafood Report. Monterey Bay Aquarium. 63 p.

Rothlisberg PC. 1979. Combined Effects of Temperature and Salinity on the Survival and Growth of the Larvae of Pandalus Jordani (Decapoda: Pandalidae). Marine Biology 54(2): 125-134.

Schweigert J, Wood C, Hay D, McAllister M, Boldt J, McCarter B, Therriault TW. 2012. Recovery Potential Assessment of Eulachon (Thaleichthys pacificus) in Canada. Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat. Research Document 2012/098. 128 p.

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Somers KA, Jannot JE, Tuttle V, McVeigh J. 2016a. FOS coverage rates, 2002-2016. NOAA Fisheries, NWFSC Observer Program. May 2017. Accessed 01 May 2018.  http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fram/observation/data_products/sector_products.cfm#ob.

Somers KA, Lee YW, Jannot JE, McVeigh J. 2016b. Catch tables by sector: Pink Shrimp trawl, 2004-2015. NOAA Fisheries, NWFSC Observer Program. 1 August 2016. Accessed 01 May 2018.  http://www.nwfsc.noaa.gov/research/divisions/fram/observation/data_products/sector_products.cfm#obs.

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